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ipHandbook Blog

Your source for expert commentary on IP management issues.
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Editor-in-Chief,   Anatole Krattiger

Editorial Board

Concept Foundation


Fiocruz, Brazil

bioDevelopments-   Institute

Search Help

This help section answers the following questions for all searches:

How do I search for a specific phrase?

To search for a phrase instead of specific words, enclose the phrase in quotation marks. For example, the search term

annual convention

will find all the pages that contain either word. In contrast, the value

"annual convention"

will find pages that only contain that exact phrase (case insensitive).

How do I use AND, OR, and NOT to refine my search?

The words "AND", "OR", and "NOT", always in uppercase, are Boolean operators that can be used to create complex searches. For example, to create a search that finds pages that contain the words "annual" and "convention" but not necessarily together, enter the value

annual AND convention

To create a search that finds pages that contain the words "annual" or "convention" or both, enter the value annual OR convention

Note that a list of words without quotation marks or Boolean operators is considered an "OR" search. The value

annual convention

is the same as

annual OR convention

Finally, to create a search that finds pages that contain the word "annual" but not "convention", enter the value

annual NOT convention

Boolean operators can be combined together and used with individual words and phrases, if necessary.

Why does my search always return zero (0) results?

A search result of zero (0) results means that either your search term cannot be found on the site, or you have selected too many restrictions for your search term. Try the following:

  • Are any words in your search term misspelled? Correct any misspellings and consider alternate spellings if you know of any.
  • Are you searching for a phrase using quotation marks? Try using a simpler phrase.
  • Are you using the Boolean "AND" and/or "NOT" operators? Try the search without them.